شعر پژوهی، جلد ۱۴، شماره ۱، صفحات ۱۰۱-۱۳۶

عنوان فارسی اهمیت متون علمی در شرح و تصحیح چهار بیت از حافظ
چکیده فارسی مقاله اهمیت متون علمی در شرح و تصحیح چند بیت از حافظ
 
میثم جعفریان هریس*
اسدالله واحد **
 
چکیده
حافظ نه مانند خواجوست که یکسره به قصد خلق ایهام، واژه‌ای را در بیت بی‌پروا یله کند و نه مانند خاقانی است که لطف سخنش در تزاحم اظهار علم و فضل یاوه شود. ایهامات علمی او همه برخاسته از مراتب دانشش است. نمونه‌های پیش روی، سنتزی است متعادل از وجه علمی سخن با بُعد شاعرانگی کلام، ازاین‌روی لازم است اجزای آن دسته از بیت‌هایی که پس‌زمینه‌هایی علمی دارند، از هر نظر دقیق بررسی شود. فرض ما این است که در این‌گونه بیت‌ها کمتر جزء عبث و نمایشی وجود دارد. هرچند بسیاری از معارف قرون وسطایی ما در قیاس با علوم روز چندان سهمی از علم ندارد، با این همه سخن شاعرانی چون خاقانی و حافظ در بیشتر موارد به‌طوردقیق بر همان‌گونه داده‌های آن اعصار قابل‌تطبیق است. در این نوشته، بیت‌هایی از حافظ را ضمن توجه تام به روایت نسخه‌ها و بوطیقای وی به دستیاری متون متداول علمی عصری‌اش مورد تصحیح علمی-انتقادی- تحقیقی قرار داده‌ایم. درصورتی‌که این روش ازمنظر حافظ‌پژوهان رهیافتی اطمینان‌بخش به شمار آید، می‌توان امیدوار بود که در موارد دیگری از دیوان حافظ نیز که محل اختلاف است، گره‌گشا باشد.
واژه‌های کلیدی: دیوان حافظ، متون علمی، تصحیح انتقادی، بوطیقا.
 
* دانش‌آموخته‌ی دکتری زبان و ادبیات فارسی دانشگاه تبریز lawmeisamjafarian@gmail.com(نویسنده‌ی مسئول)
 
** استاد زبان و ادبیات فارسی دانشگاه تبریز avahed@tabrizu.ac.ir
تاریخ دریافت مقاله: 16/7/1399                     تاریخ پذیرش مقاله: 12/5/1400
 
کلیدواژه‌های فارسی مقاله واژه‌های کلیدی دیوان حافظ، متون علمی، تصحیح انتقادی، بوطیقا،

عنوان انگلیسی The importance of scientific Texts in editing and commentary on some lines of Hafez
چکیده انگلیسی مقاله The importance of scientific Texts in editing and commentary on some lines of Hafez
 
Meisam Jafarian Harris
 Ph.D. in Persian Literature and Language, Faculty of Persian Literature and Foreign Languages, University of Tabriz, Tabriz, Iran (corresponding author)
E-mail: lawmeisamjafarian@gmail.com
Asadollah Vahed
Professor of Persian Literature and Language, Faculty of Persian Literature and Foreign Languages, University of Tabriz, Tabriz, Iran
E-mail: avahed@tabrizu.ac.ir
Preface:
Hafez is not a poet like Khajoo that apply a word in his poem, merely in order to create double entendre, and He is not follow Khaghani's way in paling the grace of poem through abundance of scientific expression. Rather his poem is balanced synthesis of scientific aspect of word with poetical dimension of speech. Hi use this rhetorical figure (ihām) on the basis of his detailed Knowledge about scientific texts. So it is necessary to survey the series of couplets which have scientific background, considering every aspect. Our hypothesis is that, there is no sort of conventional word-play thing in such couplets. Although most of our medieval knowledge in comparison to modern sciences are almost nothing, in most cases the speech of poets like Khaghani and Hafez is exactly according to the facts of those ages. In this paper as an instance, meanwhile paying a complete attention to the variant readings and Hafez poetic art also by getting help from common scientific texts of the Hafez age, we have critically edited some couplets of Hafez. If this method receive verification from Hafezian scholars, we can be hopeful that it can be effective and solving in other cases of Divan-e Hafez.
Introduction:
So far Hafezian scholars have enumerated various factors in creation of different variants of Hafez poems. The nature of different variants at the first step is studied considering this aspects: whether these reforms were made by the poet himself? Have the scribes had any influence in its formation? Or other factors than these two have been the source of different variants?
Hafez researchers believe that the most important determinant of different variants is not the scribes errors and mistakes, but they are related to the following agents:

Unwillingness of Hafez to collect his poems
The evolutionary rudiments of his aesthetical points of view
The socio-political situations of his time
Changing of individual and particular cases into general

 
We can expand this list by two important points:

The evolution of Hafez knowledge: Perhaps the evolution of Hafez knowledge in different branches of science of his time has been a reason for the substitution of some of the variants.
Hafez textual researches: This factor can be the one of main and the most effective reasons of different variants. Therefore intertextuality will be the authentic method in critical edition of Hafez’s poem.

 Goals:
“The establishment of a reliable text” of Divan-e Hafez -like his poem and character- is an exception in the world of text edition. For edition of Divan-e Hafez it is not the scientific method to collate one particular copy of divan with other manuscripts and note the variants in the footnotes without any critical review. On the contrary, for each different variant several explanatory essays are necessary, these notes along with paying attention to the different versions of manuscripts and exploring aesthetical and rhetorical aspects of Hafez’s poem should be assessed totally, and only in this case -maybe- it is possible to perceive Hafez’s mind and language. This burden is heavy enough to be carried by only one person, that is to say it is necessary for the scholars to research the various layers of Hafez’s multiplanar poem from a special angle where the differences exist. This article is -we hope- a small step in that direction.
Methods:
In process of creation of art works, Hafez does not believe in “beginning from nothing”. He is the poet of selections and motivations. Instead of using his mind power for creation of art works at the same level, as the poets before his time, through literary critical criterions, which he has learned at the schools of rhetoric and poetic specialists, he strains “Persian/Arabic texts in literary as well as in scientific fields” and as an eloquent poet, selects what he approves of mentally and linguistically, and recreates by exceeding artistic genius values, his knowledge and reflecting incidents of his time.
In the process of researching the textual relationships between Hafez poem and Persian/Arabic poetry/prose as well as scientific texts, it turns out that throughout his life time, he has been researching on these resources.
There are evidences in the Divan-e Hafez which show that some of the different variants have a root in his researches in scientific texts. For example:
حیلت / حالت / طاقت




کوه  اندوه   فراقت   به  چه  حیلت  بکشد


 


حافظ خسته که از ناله تنش چون نالی است
(Hafez,1387Š: 129)




Varian Readings in Hafez’ Qazals (Neisari, 1385Š vol.1:291):
حیلت :based on 31 manuscripts→ oldest one: Hagia Sophia dated 813 A.H./1410 A.D.
حالت :based on 2 manuscripts→ oldest one: Khalkhali dated 827 A.H./1424 A.D.
طاقت :based on 2 manuscripts→ oldest one: dated 817-34 A.H./1414-31 A.D.
حیلت:based on The Oldest Manuscript of Divan-i Hafiz dated 801A.H./1398-99A.D. (Hafez,1394Š:14)
QB: حالتPNSEJ: حیلت<1>
Hilat (حیلت) in this line is a single word with a double meaning (=ihām) “obvious” and “far-fetched”: 1. Means or Plan 2. Scientific term applied in the knowledge of ingenious mechanical devices (=ilm-ul-hiyalعلم‌الحیل) that refers to the ancient form of modern mechanical engineer.
Conclusion:
Although Hafez poem is clear, it has a deep structure which a thorough understanding of his poem and deciphering his “dense poetic language” would not be possible unless through Intertextuality. This principle can be true in editing his poem. In such cases we should use the method of adding up a series of rational, eloquent and narrative reasons for the preference of different variants and critical editions. It is necessary to be noted that while we emphasize Hafez textual researches, we do not ignore his independent individual and original artistic creativity in the formation and completion of his poems.
 
Notes:

B:Hafez Sh. Mohammad. Divān.(1378Š). ed. Baha-al-Din Khorramshahi and Javid; E: (1385). ed. Rashid Eyvazi; J:Idem. (1372). ed. JalaliNaeini and nooraniVesal; N:Idem. (1385). ed.SalimNeisari; p:Idem. (1375). ed. Parviz khanlari; Q:Idem. (1387). ed. Qazvini and Ghan; S:Idem. (1390.).ed. Sayeh H.Ebtehaj

Keywords:Divan-e Hafez - Scientific Texts - Critical Edition - Poetic
References:
- AL-Quranu'l-Karim. Tarjomeh: Bahaao'd-Din Xorram-Shaahi. Tehraan: Dustan. 1386
- Avhadi Maraaqe'i, A. (1340). Divaan. Tashih: Nafisi. Tehraan: Amir Kabir
- Axavayni, A. (1344). Hidaayatu'l-Muta'allimin Fil-Tibb. Tashih: Matini. Mash'had: Daneshgaahe Firdowsi
- Baaxarzi , Y. (1383). Fosusu'l Aadaab. Tashih: Afshaar. Tehraan: Daneshgahe-Tehraan
- Biruni , A. (1316). Al-Tafhim. Tashih: Homaa'i. Tehraan: Majles
- Este'laami , M. (1388). Dars-e Haafiz. 2 Jild. Tehraan: Soxan
- Eyvazi, R. (1384). Haafize-Bartar Kodaam Ast?. Tehraan: Amir Kabir
- Fidowsi, A. (1398). Shaahnameh. Tashih: Xaaleqiye-Motlaq. 4 Jild. Tehraan: Soxan
- Haafiz, Sh. (1393). Divaan. Tashih: Xorram-shaahi. Tehraan: Dustaan
- Haafiz, Sh. (1390). Haafiz be Sa'ye sayeh. Tehraan: Karnaameh
- Haafiz, Sh. (1388). Divaan. Tashih: Neisaari. Tehraan: Soxan
- Haafiz, Sh. (1387). Divaan. Tashih: Qazvini va Qani. Kushesh: Jorbozeh-daar. TEhraan: Asaatir
- Haafiz, Sh. (1385). Divaan. Tashih: Eyvazi. Tehraan: Amir Kabir
- Haafiz, Sh. (1378). Divaan. Qaraa'at-Goziniye Intiqadi. Kushesh: Jaavid va Xorram-Shaahi. Tehraan. Farzaan Ruz
- Haafiz, Sh. (1375). Divaan. Tashih: Xaanlari. 2 Jild. Tehraan: Xaarazmi
- Haafiz, Sh. (1372). Divaan. Tashih: Jalali Na'ini va Nuraani Visaal. Tehraan: Soxan / Noqreh
- Hakim Meysari. (1395). Daanesh-Naameh Dar Elm-e Pezeshki. Tashih: Baraat-e Zanjaani. Tehraan: Daneshgahe-Tehraan
- Hamadaani, R. (2536). Vaqf-Naameh-ye Rab'-e Rashidi. Tashih: Minovi ; Afshaar. Tehraan: Anjoman-e Asaar-e Melli
- Hamidiaan, S. (1395). Sharhe-Showq. 5 Jild. Tehraan: Qatreh
- Heravi, H. (1392). Sharh-e Qazalhaay-e Haafiz. 4 Jild. Tehraan: Nov
- Ibn-i Fariz, O. (1382). Divaan. Tashih: Karam Al-Bostaani. Beirut: Daar-o Sadir ; Daar-o Beirut
- Ibn-i Manzur, M. (1988). Lisaanu'l-Arab. Ali Shiri. 18 jild. Beirut: Daaru Ihyaau'l-Turaasu'l-Arabi
- Ibn-i Sina, H. (1999). Al-Qaanun Fil-Tibb. Vaza-a Havashih Al-Zannavi. 3 Jild. Beyrut: Daaru'l-Kotobi'l-Elmiyya
- Ibn-i Sina, H. (1389). Qaanun. Tarjomeh: Sharafkandi. 8 Jild. Tehraan: Sorush
- Ibn-i Yamin , M. (1344). Divaan. Tashih: Baastani. Tehraan: Sanaa'i
- Jorjaani , E. (1391). Zaxireye Xaarazmshaahi. Qom: Mo'asseseye Ihya'e Tibbe Tabi'i
- Jorjaani , E. (1380). Zaxireye Xaarazmshaahi. Tashih: Moharreri. Tehraan: Farhangestaan-e Olum-e Pezeshki
- Kammalu'l Din, E. (1348). Divaan. Ihtimaam: Bahru'l-Ulumi. Tehraan: Kitab-xaneye Dehxoda
- Manuchehriye-Damqaani, A. (1394). Divaan. Tashih: Dabirsiaqi. Tehraan: Zavvaar
- Maraqi Kaashaani, N. (1366). Mosannafaat. Tashih: Minovi ; Mahdavi. Tehraan: Xaarazmi
- Meybodi, R. (1361). Kashfu'l-Asraar va Oddatu'l-Abraar. Tashih: Hekmat. 10 Jild. Tehraan: Amir Kabir
- Mohaqqeq, M. (1390). Tahlil-e Ash'aar-e Naaser-e Xosrov. Tehraan: Daaneshgaah-e Tehraan
- Movlavi Balxi, M. (1396). Masnavi Ma'navi. Tashih: Movahheid. 2 Jild. Tehraan: Farhangestaane-Zabaan va Adabe-Faarsi
- Nasr, H. (1393). Elm Va Tamaddon Dar Islaam. Tarjomeh: Aaraam. Tehraan: Elmi Va Farhangi
- Nazaari Qohestaani, S. (1371). Divaan. Tashih: Mosaffaa. 2 Jild. Tehraan: Elmi
- Neysaari, S. (1385). Daftare-Degarsaaniha dar Qazalhaaye-Haafiz. 2 Jild. Tehraan: Farhangestaane-Zabaan va Adabe-Faarsi
- Nikolson, R. (1393). Sharh-e Masnavi Movlavi. Tarjomeh: Laahuti. Tehraan: Elmi Va Farhangi
- Nizami  Aruzi, A. (1382). Caahaar Maqaaleh. Tashih: Qazvini. Sharh: Qareh Baglu; Anzaabi Nezhaad. Tehraan: Jaami
- Qani, Q. (1389). Tarix-e Asr-e Haafiz. Tehraan: Zavvaar
- Qobaadiaani, N. (1388). Divaan. Tashih: Minovi ; Mohaqqeq. Tehraan: Daaneshgaah-e Tehraan
- Rastgu, M. (1395). Dar Peye-Aan Aashenaa. Daftare-Noxost. Tehraan: Ney
- Ripka, Y et al. (1383). Taarix-e Adabiyaat-e Iran. Tarjomeh: Serri. 2 Jild. Tehraan: Soxan
- Ripka, Y et al. (1380). Taarix-e Adabiyaat-e Iran. Tarjomeh: Aazhand. Tehraan: Gostareh
- Sa'di, M. (1393). Kolliyyaat. Tashih: Xorramshaahi. Tehraan: Dustaan
- Sa'di, M. (1385). Qazalhaaye-Sa'di. Tashih: Yusefi. Tehraan: Soxan
- Sajjadi, J. (1389). Farhang-e Estelaahaat-e Erfaani. Tehraan: Tahuri
- Sanaa'i, M. (1382). Hadiqatu'l Haqiqah. Tashih: Hoseyni. Tehraan: Markaz-e Nashr-e Daaneshgaahi
- Shafi'iye-Kadkani, M. (1397). In Kimiaye-Hasti. 3 Jild. Tehraan: Soxan
- Sudi, M. (1395). Sharh-e Qazalhaay-e Haafiz. Tarjomeh: Sattar-zaadeh. Tehraan: Negaah
- Vassaaf'l Hazrah, A. (1388). Taarix-e vassaf'l Hazrah. Tashih: Hajiyan-Nezhaad. Jild: 4. Tehraan: Daaneshgaah-e Tehraan
- Xaaqani, B. (1387). Divaan. Tashih: kazzaazi. 2 Jild. Tehraan: Markaz
- Xaanlari, P. (1395). Taarix-e Zabaan-e Faarsi. Tehraan: now
- Xorram-Shaahi, B. (1387). Haafiz. Tehraan: Tarhe-now
- Xorram-Shaahi, B. (1385). Haafiznaameh. 2 Jild. Tehraan: Elmi va Farhangi
- Zarrin-Koob, A. (1389). Kaarnaameye-Islaam. Tehraan: Amir Kabir
- Zaryaabe-Xo'I, A. (1368). A'ineye-Jaam. Tehraan: Elmi
Foreigns:
- Al-Bīrūnī, Abu’l-Rayḥān Muḥammad. (1934). The Book of Instruction in Art of Astrology: Kitāb al-tafhīm li-awā’il ṣina‘at al-tanjīm. Edited & Translated by R. Ramsay Wright. London: Luzac & Co
- Al-Jazarī, Ismāʿīl. (1988). The Book of Knowledge of Ingenious Mechanical Devices: Kitáb fí ma'rifat al-hiyal al-handasiyya. Translated & Annotated by Donald R. Hill. Dordecht: D. Reidel
- Edward G. Browne. (1921). Arabian Medicine. London: Cambridge University
- Richard A. Drake et al. (2015). Grays Atlas of Anatomy. Canada: Elsevier
Essays:
- Ma'sumi Hamadaani, H. (1381). “Jaam-e Adl; Ta'ammoli Dar Ma'naa-ye Beyti Az Haafiz”. Dar Majalle-ye Nashr-e Daanesh. Saal-e 19. Shomaareh 1. Bahhar 1381. Pp 18-30.
Manuscripts:
جزری، اسماعیل بن رزاز(بی‌تا. حدوداً میانة 618-596 ه.ق). الجامع بین العمل و العلم النافع فی صناعه الحیل.PDF.  در: کتاب فی معرفة الحیل الهندسیة، إسمعیل بن الرزّاز الجزری | مکتبة قطر الرقمیة (qdl.qa)
 
- Jazari, E. (Bita. Hodudan Mianeh-ye 596-618 A.H.). Al-Jame' Bayn Al-Amal Va Al-Elm. PDF. Dar: Kitab Fi Ma'rifat Al-Hiyal Al-Handasiyyah, Esmaaeil Ibn Al-Razzaz Al-Jazari  |Maktabah Qatar Al-Raqamiyyah (qdl.qa)
- Haafiz, Sh. (1375). Divaan. Kohantarin Nosxeye-ShenaaxteShodeye- Kamel. Ketaabat: 801 Hijri. DastNevise-Shomaareh: 5194 Ketaabxaaneye-Nur Osmaaniyeye-Estaanbul. NosxeBargardaan. Kushesh: Imani. Tehraan: Mirase-Maktub
Softwares:
- Ketaab-xaane-ye Jame'-e Sonnati Va Islaami. [CD-ROM]. Qom: Mo'assese-ye Cumputeri-ye Noor
- Loqatnaameh Dehxoda [CD-ROM]. Tehraan: Daneshgahe-Tehraan
کلیدواژه‌های انگلیسی مقاله واژه‌های کلیدی دیوان حافظ, متون علمی, تصحیح انتقادی, بوطیقا

نویسندگان مقاله میثم جعفریان هریس |
دانش آموخته دکتری زبان و ادبیات فارسی، دانشکده‌ی ادبیات و زبان‌های خارجی، دانشگاه تبریز، تبریز، ایران

اسدالله واحد |
استاد زبان و ادبیات فارسی، دانشکده‌ی ادبیات و زبان‌های خارجی، دانشگاه تبریز، تبریز، ایران


نشانی اینترنتی https://jba.shirazu.ac.ir/article_6286_2075c7fdc58a863130fab9dd334ba958.pdf
فایل مقاله فایلی برای مقاله ذخیره نشده است
کد مقاله (doi)
زبان مقاله منتشر شده fa
موضوعات مقاله منتشر شده
نوع مقاله منتشر شده
برگشت به: صفحه اول پایگاه   |   نسخه مرتبط   |   نشریه مرتبط   |   فهرست نشریات