پژوهشنامه ادب غنایی، جلد ۲۰، شماره ۳۸، صفحات ۱۱۹-۱۴۴

عنوان فارسی تحلیل قصه اعرابی و سبوی آب بر اساس نظریه مازلو
چکیده فارسی مقاله چکیده
داستان «اعرابی و سبوی آب» از جمله داستان‌هایی است که درمثنوی مولانا و مصیبت‌نامه عطار و در برخی دیگر از آثار منظوم و منثور زبان فارسی آمده است. این داستان تاکنون از زوایای مختلف نظیر ابعاد اجتماعی ،عرفانی،آموزه های اخلاقی و... مورد بررسی قرار گرفته است و در این مقاله به تحلیل وبررسی این موضوع از بعد روان‌شناسی شخصیت با رویکرد انسان گرایی بر اساس نظریه ی روانشناس انسان را آبراهام مازلو ( 1908-1970 ) پرداخته شده است. فضای کلی داستان گفتگوی دوجانبه اعرابی و همسرش می‌باشد که از طریق همین گفتگوها ویژگی‌های شخصیتی آنان به روش توصیفی - تحلیلی مورد بررسی قرار گرفته است. مقاله می کوشد به این سوال پاسخ بدهد که:
آیا نیاز های مادی تأثیری بر خلق و خوی افراد دارد و انسان توانسته است با بی اعتنایی به مادیات به کمال برسد؟
و در نهایت دیده می شود که انسان با غلبه بر مشکلات و سختی های زندگی و توکل به خداوند می تواند بر بسیاری از مشکلات خود فائق آمده و به مرحله خود شکوفایی که همان مرحله کمال یا نقطه اوج است، دست بیابد.
کلیدواژه‌های فارسی مقاله واژگان کلیدی خودشکوفایی، مازلو، اعرابی،

عنوان انگلیسی Analysis of “The Bedouin and the Water container” According to Maslow’s Theory.
چکیده انگلیسی مقاله  
      The story of "Arab and the jugs of Water" is one of the stories which have been published in Masnavi of Mawlānā and MusibatNama of Attar. This story has been studied from various angles such as social, mystical, ethical teachings, etc. In this regard, the analysis of this subject has been studied from the perspective of personality psychology with the approach of humanism based on the theory of Abraham Mazlou(1908-1970). The general plot of the story is about a dialog between an Arab and his wife by which their personalities are showed and analyzed.Which is the stage of perfection from the viewpoint of the mystics.
The article tries to answer this question
Are material needs affecting the mood of people And has man been able to attain perfection by disregarding material things?
And finally, it can be seen how the Arab woman with tricks and anger and engagement with worldly appearances and material in the very early stages of the material needs remained, and no progress was made in his life, but the Arabs died with Patience and disregard for materiality reaches the peak of self-actualization, which is the stage of perfection from the viewpoint of the mystics.
Keywords: Self-actualization . Mazlow . Arab.
 
 

Introduction

The story of ‘the Bedouin and the water container’ is among the tales pointed out by some narrators and poets. “This story has been itself taken from a tale related in the book of ‘Rouh Al Arvah’ as follows”: It has been related that some Bedouin intended to………
It has been related that a Bedouin left his home town with the intention of being granted the gratuity of one of the kings of his locality. In one of the resting places along his way, he found a spring where the water suited his taste. So, he filled the leather flask full of water and headed toward the Shah’s residence where upon king’s order the flask was bound to be filled to the brim with gold. King’s confidantes asked him on the wisdom for such a wonderful donation. The king answered; of the material wealth, the Bedouin owned nothing but this, whereas we have lots of gold coins.”
“It has apparently been Attar who brought forth the tale into verse, followed by Rumi, who presented a detailed account of the tale by altering the story and adding own ancillary tales to the original narration.” (Sanati Nia, 1991:242)
“Mohammad Owfi, has included the story in his book; ‘Jawameol Hekayat (2nd chapter, 1st section), like Attar’s narration.” (Forouzanfar, 1973:101). And Rumi has brought it in Mathnavi, (1st book), under a story titled; “The Caliph who during his own rein, caught up with Hatim al-Tai in generosity.”The article analyzing lyrical characters of Mathnavi’s story from a psychological point of view is actually an interdisciplinary study in the field of psychology and literature. Since, there have been many scholars who have so far analyzed the characters of the story from mystical, moral, philosophical aspects, I felt myself obliged to present a psychoanalytical study of the same story.  Therefore, to gain a better understanding of the topic, the author has tried to expound a little on the notion of psychology and character before analyzing the characters based on Maslow’s psychological theory.

How are the characters in this story psychologically?
Do any the characters reach the stage of perfection?


Methodology

The research is a descriptive- analytical one carried out based on content analysis. Theoretical foundations of the study rely on psychological resources and contrastive character studies considering Maslow’s hierarchical needs from a psychological viewpoint. The analysis of each character is compared upon the psychological pattern set forth.“Description of moods and biography of characters in Stories and anecdotes has separated Mathnavi from the form of a mystical and philosophical book merely explicating and relating theoretical insights Mathnavi and has elevated the artistic aspect of Rumi’s Mathnavi as well. This feature has caused the reader to perceive Rumi as a thoughtful artist or an artistic intellectual to the point that art and intellect are mutually interdependent so that each is alternately complementary to the other. Thought brings about the tale giving direction to the inherent nature, plan quality of dialogs and description of characters’ moods and emotional setting. Tales and dialogs caused by Rumi’s experiences and scrutiny on peoples’ moods and behavior and awareness about their spiritual moods in different settings, brings about thoughts to the foreground of exposure.” (Pournamdarian, 2002:295)
 
2.Discussion
Undoubtedly, there’s a firm relationship between psychology and literature. In order to become aware of the relationship between literature and psychology, one has to know that all the stories related by Rumi in Mathnavi, all those lengthy dialogs between the characters and descriptions of characters’ moods, do not principally exist, rather all these are items added through Rumi’s innovative mind. “Abraham Maslow, is considered the leader and spiritual founder of the movement of ‘humanitarian psychology’. He has intensively criticized behaviorology and psychoanalysis especially from Freud’s point of approach. In Maslow’s opinion, psychologists who only focus on studying abnormal aspects of human nature i.e. individuals who suffer from emotional disturbance, Ignore positive characteristics of mankind such as happiness, satisfaction, and tranquility by emphasizing on abnormal behavior only”(Duane Schultz and Sydney Allen, 2005:338)
Maslow believed; “Each of us is born with instinctoid or innate needs that drive us to grow, develop and do whatever is necessary to fulfill these needs.” So potential talent for perfection and mental safety exists in us from the moment of birth. The point is weather man’s potential talent would turn into actual reality depends on individual and social forces that would become positive or negative.” (Duane Schultz 1996:91)“Maslow believes; “Each of us is born with instinctoid or innate needs that drive us to grow, develop and do whatever is necessary to fulfill these needs. He has illustrated these needs in the form of a ladder titles “Ladder of ‘Needs’ (Motivation)” He believes in order to reach higher steps of the ladder, man has to pass the lower steps.”
The story of ‘The Beduine and his wife’ has appeared in the first book of Mathnavi. This is the story of a poor man who is blamed by his wife for his utmost poverty. One night, the woman starts to rebuke because of financial difficulty which is psychologically similar to being caught into the first step of Maslow’s ladder i.e. physiological needs as: food, water etc….. The man who has relieved from the worldly chains, living a frugal life, remains indifferent to her grievances and due to “an obligation to an ideal”, starts to give her advice. The woman rebukes back and calls him a hypocrite, playing the role of a contented. Rather, in Maslow’s belief, role playing is an aspect of self- actualization per se, showing man’s naturalness and self-simplicity.
4- Conclusion:
From the beginning of the story we notice that Rumi with utmost mastership arranges all characters of the story who are psychologically evaluated, according to their personality traits. Here two original characters are analyzed. First Bedouin’s wife who portrays herself as a negative person all along the story by her grievances, complaints and ill-temper, a type who, according to Maslow, has been stuck at the very first step of the ladder of the hierarchy of needs and would do nothing whatsoever to move higher.
The other character is the Bedouin who depicts himself that his traits are at one with the characteristics of self-actualized types at all stages. From Maslow’s viewpoint, he is at the height of the ladder. During the development of the story it is quite visible how he actualized all his needs and talents and climbed to self-actualization stage i.e. the stage of perfection or the apex of the pyramid. 
The apex point, from Maslow’s opinion is actually the stage of perfection from mystics’ view. The story is in fact a biographical sketch of mankind and his capability to understand the ‘Truth and Truthfulness’. The Beduine is the traveler of the path of ‘Truth’ and an enthusiast follower of the path. He truly discovers the fact that the world with all its beauties resembles a drop in comparison to an ocean.
 
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کلیدواژه‌های انگلیسی مقاله واژگان کلیدی خودشکوفایی, مازلو, اعرابی

نویسندگان مقاله طیبه خبیری |
دانشجوی دکترای زبان و ادبیات فارسی دانشگاه آزاد اسلامی، واحد مشهد(نویسنده مسئول)

رضا اشرف زاده |
استاد گروه زبان و ادبیات فارسی دانشگاه آزاد اسلامی، واحد مشهد


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