پژوهشنامه ادب غنایی، جلد ۲۰، شماره ۳۸، صفحات ۹۱-۱۱۸

عنوان فارسی «تحلیل تطبیقی منطق‌الطیر عطار و بهشت گمشدۀ میلتون»
چکیده فارسی مقاله یکی از آثار ارزشمند عرفانی که به زبان رمزی و سمبولیک سروده‌شده‌است، منطق الطّیر عطّار است که سفری پرمخاطره توسطّ مرغان به رهبری هدهد برای رسیدن به سیمرغ -رمز ذات احدیّت –را روایت‌می‌کند. بهشت گمشده میلتون نیز اثری سمبولیک است که به لحاظ طرح موانع رسیدن به کمال، مشابهت‌هایی با منطق الطّیر دارد. ویژگی‌های زبانی و داستانی مشابه و روح حماسی حاکم بر هر دو اثر است؛ با این تفاوت که در منطق‌الطّیر، حماسه، عرفانی و در بهشت گمشده، حماسه بیشتر ادبی است. عطّار و جان‌میلتون از منابع دینی مختص آیین خویش در آفرینش اثر خود بهره گرفته‌اند. شیوۀ بیان روایت حضرت آدم(ع) و نسبت دادن گناه آغازین به حوّا یا آدم وحوّا ، فاصلۀ حقیقت تا مجازِ این دو متن را تا حدودی مشخص می‌کند. همسویی‌ها و ناهمسویی‌های نگرش‌های عطّار و جان میلتون، در این دو اثر ارزشمند برمبنای چه عواملی تعیین‌می‌شوند؟ تحلیل تطبیقی در این پژوهش از یکسو مبتنی بر بینش سیّاره‌ای یعنی نگریستن به تفاوت‌ها، بدون نفی دیگری و از سوی دیگر مبتنی بر شباهت‌ها بدون الزام همسان‌سازی با دیگری و شیوۀ کلّی پژوهش، تحلیل محتوای کیفی متن است.
کلیدواژه‌های فارسی مقاله منطق‌الطّیر، بهشت گمشده، تحلیل تطبیقی،

عنوان انگلیسی “Comparative analysis of Attar's Mantegh-al-tair and Milton's Paradise of lost”
چکیده انگلیسی مقاله         One of the mystic valuable text that has composed to symbolic,is Mantegh-al-tair of Attar Nishboori that narrative journey perilous that done via birds on lead Hoopoe for achieve to Roc (essence of God). Paradise of lost is also   symbolic text that in terms of plan barriers of achieve to perfection, has similarities with Mantegh-al-tair. Because of space time between these texts, this research has proceeded to comparative analysis at a time not concurrency. Factors that caused these texts should be required this analysis, are storied exclusivity similar and the epic spirit dominate on both; with this difference that in Mantegh-al-tair, epic is mystic and in Paradise of lost epic is more literary. Attar and John Milton have taken of their religious sources in creation their texts. Method explanation narrative of Adam and relate to intial sin to Hawa or Adam, specifies somewhat space truth until allowed in these texts. What factore determined similarities and unsimilarities views of Attar and John Milton in these valuable works? Comparative analysis in this research is on one hand based on planetary insights namely look to differences, without denial other and on the other hand based on similarities without requirement of matching with other and general method of this research is analysis qualitative content of text.    

 
1-Introduction
One of the mystic valuable text that has composed to symbolic, is Mantegh-al-tair of Attar Nishboori that narrative journey perilous that done via birds on lead Hoopoe for achieve to Roc (essence of God). Paradise of lost is also symbolic text that in terms of plan barriers of achieve to perfection, has similarities with Mantegh-al-tair. Because of space time between these texts, this research has proceeded to comparative analysis at a time not concurrency. Factors that caused these texts should be required this analysis, are storied exclusivity similar and the epic spirit dominate on both; with this difference that in Mantegh-al-tair, epic is mystic and in Paradise of lost epic is more literary. Attar and John Milton have taken of their religious sources in creation their texts. Method explanation narrative of Adam and relate to initial sin to Hawa or Adam, specifies somewhat space truth until allowed in these texts. Comparative analysis in this research is on one hand based on planetary insights namely look to differences, without denial other and on the other hand based on similarities without requirement of matching with other and general method of this research is analysis qualitative content of text. What factors determined similarities and un similarities views of Attar and John Milton in these valuable works? Illustrious similarities between these two texts, some like selection of specific figure in the  symbolic meaning and language, are related to structure of text and some like adoration of prophets divine religion and conflict with superego, are related their content. The most important sample that mystic texts among Mantegh-al-tair, direct and indirect have dialogue, is Quran. Quran is super text that these mystic texts their authority meaning acquire via relation by it. This view is in Mantegh-al-tair. Paradise of lost narrative of story about initial sin of man and the fruit of the forbidden family tree that missed paradise and weal with deathful flavor and death and despondence came to world. John Milton in compose Paradise of lost in the structure this book, use of holy writ Talmud, also epic effect lliad, odyssey, Aeneid, tragedy of ancient Greece, Italy renaissance and French and English effects.
 
2-Research methodology
Comparative analysis in this research on one hand is based on planetary vision that’s mean to look differences, without negation other one and on the other hand is based on similarities without requirement of matching with other one and general method of this research is analysis qualitative content of context.
 
3-Discussion
Fariddodin Attar Neishaboori is one of the famous Persian poems that had provided salient celebrity in sixth century and beginning of seventh century. Across his works, Manteghotair, has more common aspects with “Paradise Lost” of Milton. John Milton English poem was burned in December 1608 and the world know him with his excellent oeuvre “Paradise Lost”. This oeuvre has composed in seventeenth century (m.1667). That’s mean after Renaissance (fourteenth century) that theology split of humane tic. In that period holy books (bible) as worthwhile references become attention, hadn’t been researched. However under the influence their era, Milton has not been offended holy book. “Paradise Lost” is one of the English literary masterpieces and is about defiance human of God’s command and laying off him of paradise. Milton in compose 
“Paradise Lost”, in it’s structure influenced of holy book, Talmud also epic works like Iliad and Odyssey, Enid, tragedy ancient Greece, renaissance of Italy French and English… (Falanegan,2007: 12-14).
 
4-Conclusion
-The origin of both works are holy books Quran and Bible Manteghoteir what in terms of selection title that extracted of 16verse Sura naml: “And Solaiman was Dawuds heir and He addressed the people saying: “O, people we have been taught the language of birds and have been bestowed bounties of all kinds, this surely is the sign of Allah’s favor Upon us.” And what in terms of Journey’s conceptual metaphor in Quran that is original subject this Attar’s poetry collection; have Quranic source. Original type of Milton is carefully, subjects of holy book Bible that of course has been mixed with his creativity and literary taste, and has used imaginary language and attractive for creation text.
-Language of both works is symbolic and interpretable that in addition to role of aesthetic, have provided background of most semantic and expand knowledge than metaphysics.
-Milton under the influence mythical views, attributes human traits like angry to God that is inconsistency with not mutilated unitary views and origin Attar’s view namely Quran. But following of concupiscence, devil and don’t obedient of God are most important obstacles human’s way for receive to perfection and most great reasons exit of paradise and descent to earth in “Paradise Lost” that for this research is similar Mantheghotair Attar.
-Both are epic religious gnostic although gnostic point Mantheghtair is rather than religious point of “Paradise Lost”.
-Both have implicated to disincentive preventives of human with this difference that “Paradise Lost” say of human’s descent of paradise and lose his transcendental place but Manteghotair say of human’s ascent of earth and changeable world to paradise and after world.
-Narrative style honor Adam and attribute origin crime, are examples that somewhat denote distance truth until admissible of Manteghotair and “Paradise Lost”.
 
 
5- References:
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کلیدواژه‌های انگلیسی مقاله منطق‌الطّیر, بهشت گمشده, تحلیل تطبیقی

نویسندگان مقاله بهجت السادات حجازی |
دانشیار گروه زبان و ادبیات فارسی دانشگاه شهید باهنر کرمان(نویسنده مسئول)

نسرین فلّاح |
استادیار گروه زبان و ادبیات فارسی دانشگاه شهید باهنر کرمان

امیر شریفی |
کارشناسی ارشد ادبیات تطبیقی دانشگاه شهید باهنر کرمان


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