پژوهشنامه ادب غنایی، جلد ۲۰، شماره ۳۸، صفحات ۳۱-۶۰

عنوان فارسی دلیل‌آفرینی‌های هنری در شعر خاقانی شروانی
چکیده فارسی مقاله دلیل­آفرینی در شعر به­ سبب ویژگی­های تخیّلِ کلام، تأثیرگذاری و افزایش بُعد اقناعی، اهمّیّت بسیار دارد. ازسویی، خاقانی از سخنورانی است که با آگاهی از ظرفیّت­های این بیان هنری، توجّه ویژه­ای به انواع آن نموده؛ لذا بهره­گیری وی از آرایه­های دلیل­آفرینِ مذهب کلامی، مذهب فقهی و حُسن تعلیل، بسامد بالایی دارد. به­علاوه، دیگر دلیل­آوری­های هنری با زیرساختی بلاغی، در سخن وی نمود بسیار یافته که این مقاله به تحلیل­ آن­ها می­پردازد. فراوانی آرایه­های مذکور تا حدّی است که باید دلیل­آفرینی را از عناصرِ سبک­­سازِ خاقانی برشمرد و او را «شاعرِ دلیل­آفرین» نامید. در این پژوهش کوشیده­ایم، به این سؤال اصلی پاسخ دهیم که فراوانی بالای دلیل­آفرینی در شعر خاقانی چه دلایلی دارد؟بدین­منظور، با مطالعه­ دقیق دیوان خاقانی و استخراج انواع دلیل­آفرینی­، دسته­بندی آن­ها و تدبّر در احوال و زندگی وی به تحلیل موضوع پرداخته شد.نتیجه­ بررسی­ها آشکار نمود که مهم­ترین اسباب فراوانیِ دلیل­آفرینی وی، سه نکته­ است: نخست، وی به­ سبب آشنایی با دانشِ زمانه و برخورداری از ذهن علمی، برای همه سخنانش، دلیلِ هنری می­آورَد تا جنبه­های القایی سخن را افزایش دهد. دوم، در مفاهیم اندرزی و زاهدانه­ای­که تکیه بر عُزلت و ترک دنیا دارند نیز با ذکر دلیل، سخن می­گوید تا تأثیر بیشتری بر مخاطب بگذارد. سوم، او خویشتن­ستاست و مدحِ خویش و قَدحِ دیگری برای مخاطب شعرش، تنها در ساختار دلیل­آفرینی هنری، قابل توجیه است.
کلیدواژه‌های فارسی مقاله خاقانی، بلاغت، دلیل آفرینی هنری،

عنوان انگلیسی Artistic reasoning in Khāqāni Sharvani`s poems
چکیده انگلیسی مقاله     Justification in poetry holds a pivotal significance due to its features such as word impression, influence on audience. Khāqāni, regarding his knowledge on this artistic expression capacities, specifically concentrates on variety of this artistic type. his employment of justification figures of speech religion and beauty of analysis is highly depicted. other artistic justifications with rhetoric context are frequently seen in word. this paper is to analyze them. frequency of these figures is so high that one must account justification as an element of Khāqāni style-making and entitle him the justifier poet. This research tries to address critique of the divisions of these figures made by the rhetoricians and analyze presence in his poems. Findings show that the main reasons for frequency of justification could be introduced in three key points: first, Khāqāni , due to his familiarization with knowledge of that era and influenced, provides artistic reason for his whole words, even those painted emotionally, he could increase the impressionistic aspects of words. Second, he, in advice and ascetical concepts stressing relying on isolation, poverty, and world abandon, talks reasonably as well. Third, is self-appraised and appraising himself and reproaching others are justified solely through his magical artistic justification structure.          
 
 
 

Introduction

As one of the literary tropes, “Reasoning” has always been under the attention of poets, and this artistic expression has been of great significance due to its figurative speech, its effect on the listener, increasing the persuasive aspect of speech, etc. On one side, Khaqani is one of the poets in whose poetry reasoning is so frequent. Thus, in this research we aim to analyze the opinions of Balaqians (followers of rhetoric) about reasoning, examine reasoning tropes in poetry of Khaqani, and answer the following questions:

What are Balaqians’ views of reasoning?
What is the cause of that high frequency of reasoning in Khaqani’s poetry?
Why in Khaqani’s poetry, some reasoning tropes are more frequent, and some are less?

 

Methodology

The present research is a descriptive study which has primarily investigated Balaqians’ opinions about reasoning, and then through a detailed reading of Khaqani's Divān (collection of poetry), reasoning examples have been extracted, categorized, and finally analyzed.
 

Discussion

The present research has attempted to investigate and analyze Balaqians’ opinions about reasoning tropes; since one can classify their treatment of these tropes in two categories: The first one is related to those Balaqians, including Homaei, Kazzazi, Mohebbati, and so on, who either have not cared about reasoning tropes in their poetry, or have mentioned them here or there in different collections without regarding them common in '' reason making'. ( Homae ,2000. p.308, Kazzazi ,1984. p.163, Mahabati, 2007. p.106) Based on this, it could be said that the aforementioned Balaqians have either not viewed reasoning tropes from this perspective and so they have been ignorant of it, or have considered them as lacking rhetorical value, and their views can be criticized. The second one is related to Balaqians, including Shamisa and Vahidian Kamyar who have a content-based and scientific categorization of these tropes and have allocated a chapter to the title “Artistic Reasoning.” They have discussed tropes, like Hosn-e Ta’alil, Mazhab-e Fiqhi, Mazhab-e Kalami, Dalil-e Aks, and Soual Wa Jawab (question and answer). (Shamisa , 2002. p.180, Vaidian Kamkar, 2000. P.145) It must be mentioned that most of Balaqians have followed the steps of the old masters in compiling Balaqi works, and have had a prescriptive and traditional view of rhetorical tropes; while through analysis of literary works, one can find other artistic reasonings which have been used consciously by poets, and mostly disregarded by the Balaqians and this is analyzed in this paper. For example, reasonings based on simile, metaphor, metonymy, word play, Quran and Hadith (Shiite narrations) when answering one’s own questions or one’s destined question; each of these methods have functions and capacities used by poets according to the demands of era.  It must be said that maybe some other artistic reasoning methods are there, but because the present study aims to investigate reasoning in Khaqani’s poetry, the authors have exclusively dealt with artistic reasonings in his poetry. Khaqani is one of the poets who, along with awareness of functions and capacities of artistic reasoning, has paid special attention to its variations while making use of highly frequent tropes based on the demands of era and the content of his poetry in a way that he makes use of Mazhab-e Kalami in order to discuss feelings and didactics. Generally, he aims to make his argument certain and undeniable by making use of Mazhab-e Kalami:
 
Ma bargahe dadim, in raft setam bar ma
Bar qasre setamkaran ta khod che resad khezlan (Khaqani,2008. p.466)
Regarding Mazhab-e Fiqhi, it must be mentioned that Khaqani makes use of this trope for wisdom saying and didactic reasons, since it has its basis on allegory which is one of the most practical tropes in didactic literature. Another important reasoning trope is Hosn-eTa’alil(Shafie Kadkani,2009.p.391)and thus, when Khaqani makes use of it for wise saying and admonition, with his control and awareness of the delicacies of speech, he builds them upon simile. Due to its similarity to allegory, simile is so practical in the realm of didactic literature. Moreover, he makes use of those types of Hosn-e Ta’alil which are based on rhetorical elements for boasting and criticizing others so that he can reduce the praise and denunciation of speech in an artistic and fanciful manner and affect the mind of the audience:
Torsho shirin ast qadho madhe man ba ahle asr
Az anab may pokhte sazandoze hesram tootia(Khaqani,2008,p. 33)
     Also, he makes use of Hosn-e Ta’alil in order to discuss scientific issues, ornaments and description. Regarding the Soual Wa Jawab trope, it must be said that compared to other reasoning tropes, this one is less frequent, because in poetical tradition, except for Khorasani and Wasookht styles, the beloved has always overcome the lover. The pompous Khaqani finds this difficult, thus in most of questions and answers in his poetry, he seeks dominance or at least ends them as if he is the winner. Each of these approaches in Khaqani’s poetry possess special artistic and rhetorical values which have been discussed in this article. For example, giving examples based on elements, including simile, metaphor, metonymy, or reasoning based on wordplay or alphabets, or reasoning based on Quran and Hadith to make statements richer and more acceptable. In another type of reasoning which we have called it reasoning for answering the destined question, and of course it is an artistic and effective example of reasoning, the poet feels that maybe the reader’s mind comes up with some questions when reading the poem. Thus, as an answer to that destined question, he cites a reason which renders his speech clear and acceptable. Another example of reasoning is answering one’s own questions which is of significant artistic value. So, at times the poet raises a question and he himself answers it. In this type, questioning is not the aim and it tries to gain some psychological affects to inform the reader of his opinion and asks for their opinions. This reasoning which is more or less related to the art of discourse is used in rhetorical questions and Istifham Taqriri (a question which makes one confess). An example follows here:
Ba ke giram ouns kaz ahle wafa bi rooziam
Roozie man nist ya khod nist dar alam wafa?(Khaqani, 2008. p.10)
   In addition, it must be mentioned that the reasoning tropes in Khaqani’s poetry are too abundant that we must consider artistic reasoning as a style-making element of his poetry and truly call him the poet of reasoning.

Conclusion

After examining and analyzing the reasonings in Khaqani’s poetry, the present study reveals that one can conclude the reason behind the abundance of reasoning in his poetry in the three following points: Firstly, due to his profound familiarity with the sciences of his time and his possession of a scientific mind, he provides artistic reasons for all of his arguments, even those with emotional colorings to inspire the reader and achieve richness. Secondly, he provides reasons even when he speaks of didactic, insightful, and ascetic concepts which stress seclusion and poverty in order to exert more impression on the reader. Thirdly, he is a pompous poet and this is the other side of the coin of opposing others, thus too much approval or criticism might vex the reader and remove emotion and sentiment from poetry. Therefore, with his dominance over these points, Khaqani has attempted to present approval and criticism in a special artistic form which is acceptable to the reader. Thus, he has instilled approval of himself and criticism of others into his reader in the miraculous form of artistic reasons.
 References


 

Dashti,Ali. Khāqāni Shāirī DīrÃshna. 3rdpub.Tehrān:Amīrkabīr Press,

      1996.

Fārābī, Abūnasr. Ehsā' al-Ulūm. Hussein Khadyūjim.

       Tehrān:E lmī va Farhangī Press, 1988.

Furūzānfar, Badiˈul-Zamān. Sukhan va Sukhanvarān. 1st pub.

       Tehrān: Zavvār, 2008.

Futūhī, Mahmūd. Balāghat-i Tasvīr. 2nd pub. Tehrān: Sukhan Press,
 
Humāī, Jalāl al-Dīn. Funūn-e- Balāghat va Sana't-e- Adabi. 3rd pub. Tehrān: Ahūrā, 2010
Imāmi, Nasrullah. Armaghān-e- Subh. ( Barguzīdah-e Qasāyed-e Khāqānī). 4th pub. Tehrān: Jami Press, 2008.

7 .Forms of Intrinsic Ambiguity in Hafiz Songs. Research on Hafiz.
      Book 14. Pp 35-58. 2011.

Isteˈlami, Mūhammad. Naghd va Sharh-i Ghasāyid-e Khāqānī.

       1stpub.Mashhad : Zavvār Press, 2008.

Jurjānī, Abdulqāhir. Asrār al-Balāghah. Translated by Jalīl taJalīl.Tehrān:University Press, 1982.
Kazzāzi, Mīr Jalāl al-Dīn. Sharh-i Dushvārīhā-i Divān-i Khāqānī. 6th pub. Tehrān: Markaz Press, 2010.
Kazzāzi, Mīr Jalāl al-Dīn. Rukhsār-i Sūbh. 1st pub. Tehrān: Markaz Press, 2007.
Kazzāzi, Mīr Jalāl al-Dīn. Badī'( Zībāīshinākhtī-i Zabān-i Parsi. 6th pub. Tehrān: Markaz. Press, 2008.
Khāqāni, Badīl–ibn Alī. Dīvān. Mir Jālāl al-din Kazzāzi. 2nd pub.

          Tehrān: Markaz Press, 2008.

Khāqāni, Badīl–ibn Alī. Monsha'āt. Muhammad Rushan. Corrected. 2nd pub. Tehrān: Farzān Book, 1983.
Ma'dankan, Masūmeh. Bazm-i Dīrīnah-i Arūs. 4th pub. Tehrān:

          Nashr-i Danishgāhī. 2008.

Māhyār, Abbās. Gūzīdah-i Sh'r-i Khāqānī. 2nd pub. Tehrān: Qatrah Press, 1994.
Mahabbatī, Mahdī. Az Sūrat ta Ma'nā. Tehrān: Sukhan Press, 2010.
Mahabbatī, Mahdī.Badī’ Nu. 2nd pub. Tehrān: Sukhan, 2007.

19.Oskuei. Narges. Shivehaye Talili Shaeran_e_ Sabk-e- Azarbayjani. . Research of Poem(Bustan-e- Adab). P.7. No.1. pp 29- 48. 2015.

Parhīzī. AbdulKhāliq. Seir Ulūm-e Balāghī dar Abab-e Fārsī. 1stpub.Tehrān: Firdaws Press, 2017.
Rāduīyanī, Muhammad –ibn Ūmar. Tarjuman al-Balāghah. Ahmad

         Ãtash. Corrected. 2nd pub. Tehrān: Asātīr, 1983.

Rajāī, Muhammad Khalil. Ma'ālim al-Balāghah. 3rd pub. Tehrān:

         Shirāz University Press. 1972.

Sādiqīyan, Muhammadali. Zivar-i Sukhan dar Badīh-i Parsi. 2nd pub. Yazd: Yazd University Press, 2010.
Sajjādī, Sayyed Zīā al-Din. Sha'r Subh.( A research on Khāqāni

           poetry). 3rd pub. Tehrān: Sūkhan press, 1995.

Sajjādī, Sayyed Zīā al-Din. Guzīdah-i Asha'r-i Khāqānī Sharvānī. 17th pub. Tehrān:Amīr Kabīr . Press, 2007.
Shabā'ik, 'id Muhammad. Min Jamālīyāt Al-Ma'ni Husn Al-Ta'lil.

           Cairo: Dār al-Harrāh(Bī Ta).   

Shafī'ī Kadkanī, Muhammadrezā. Suvar-i Khīal dar Sh'ir-i Farsī. 8th pub. Tehrān: Sukhan Press, 2009.
Shafī'ī Kadkanī, Muhammadrezā. Rastākhīz-i Kalamāt. 3rd pub. Tehrān: Sukhan Press, 2011.
Shamisā. Sīrūs. Nigāhī Tāzah bah Badīh. 14th pub. Tehrān:

        Firdaws, 2002.

Shamisā. Sīrūs. Sabkshenāsī-i Shi'r. Tehrān: Firdaws, 2003.
Taqavī, Nasrullāh. Hanjār-i Guftār.( dar Fann-i Ma'ani, Bayān va Badih- i Farsi). Isfahan: Farhangsaray-i Isfahan, 1984.
Tashakorī, Manoochehr. Seyyed Mohsen Zakinezhadiyan. The Study and Analysis of the definitions of Beauty of ananlysis( Hūsn-i Tahlil), Its New Functions and Divisions and their Connections with Other Literary Figures. Literary criticism. P.13. No 49. Pp 36-72, 2020.
Vahīdīān Kāmyār, Taqī. Badī' az Dīdgāh Zībāīshināsī.1st pub.

          Tehrān: Dūstān Press, 2000.

Zarīnkūb, Abdulhusein. Seirī dar Shehr-i Fārsī. 4th pub. Tehrān:

          Sukhan Press, 2005.
36. Zarīnkūb, Abdulhusein. Dīdār bā Ka'beye-i Jān. (life, works and thought of Khāqānī). 4th pub. Tehrān: Sūkhan press, 2010.
کلیدواژه‌های انگلیسی مقاله خاقانی, بلاغت, دلیل آفرینی هنری

نویسندگان مقاله منوچهر تشکری |
دانشیار زبان و ادبیات فارسی دانشگاه شهید چمران اهواز، ایران(نویسنده مسئول)

سید محسن زکی نژادیان |
دانشجوی دکتری زبان و ادبیّات فارسی دانشگاه شهیدچمران اهواز، ایران


نشانی اینترنتی https://jllr.usb.ac.ir/article_6926_af034c277a37c22acee98a77329fd209.pdf
فایل مقاله فایلی برای مقاله ذخیره نشده است
کد مقاله (doi)
زبان مقاله منتشر شده fa
موضوعات مقاله منتشر شده
نوع مقاله منتشر شده
برگشت به: صفحه اول پایگاه   |   نسخه مرتبط   |   نشریه مرتبط   |   فهرست نشریات