پژوهشنامه ادب غنایی، جلد ۲۰، شماره ۳۸، صفحات ۵-۳۰

عنوان فارسی شرح عشق و محبّت از منظر امام محمد غزالی و احمد غزالی ( با تکیه بر احیاء علوم‌الدین و سوانح‌العشاق)
چکیده فارسی مقاله    عشق و محبّت از مضامین مشترک بسیاری از آثار عرفانی در ادبیات فارسی است. از این رو، در مقایسه محتوایی آثاری که صبغۀ عرفانی دارند می‌توان با بررسی این موضوعات مشترک، به شناخت بهتری از دیدگاه صوفیان در آن موضوع دست یافت. امام محمد غزالی و برادرش احمد، از چهره‌های نامدار در حوزۀ تصوف به شمار می‌روند. این مقاله با شیوۀ تحلیلی- توصیفی تلاش می‌کند تا مفهوم عشق و محبّت را از منظر این دو شخصیت با تأکید بر دو اثر احیاء‌علوم‌الدین محمد غزالی و سوانح‌العشاق احمد غزالی بررسی نموده و به این پرسش پاسخ دهد که ماهیت و کارکرد عشق و محبّت در دیدگاه امام محمد و احمد غزالی چیست. این نتیجه به دست آمد که نگاه و نگرش امام محمد غزالی نسبت به این مضمون، نگاهی دین‌مدار و معطوف به مذهب است. حال آنکه آنچه از سوانح احمد غزالی می‌توان استنباط کرد این است که دیدگاه وی نزدیکی و قرابت بیشتری با دیدگاه عارفان دارد.
کلیدواژه‌های فارسی مقاله عشق، محّمد غزالی، احیاءعلوم‌الدین، ‌‌احمد غزالی، سوانح‌العشاق،

عنوان انگلیسی Description of Love and Affection from the Perspective of Mohammad and Ahmad Ghazali Based on Iḥyā′ ‘Ulūm al-Dīn and Sawāneḥ
چکیده انگلیسی مقاله Love and affection are common themes of many mystical works in Persian literature. Therefore, by comparing the content of mystical works, it is possible to gain a better understanding of the Sufi view on that subject by examining these common themes. Imam Mohammad Ghazali and his brother Ahmad are well-known figures in the field of Sufism. This article tries to study the concept of love and affection from the perspective of these two personalities with an analytical-descriptive method, emphasizing the two works of reviving the sciences of Al-Din Mohammad Ghazali and the tragedies of Ahmad Ghazali. - What is the nature and function of love and affection for Khajeh Ahmad Ghazali and Imam Mohammad Ghazali? It was concluded that the view and attitude of Imam Mohammad Ghazali towards this subject is a religious and religious view. However, what can be deduced from Ahmad Ghazali's tragedies is that his view is closer and closer to the view of mystics.
 
 
1-Introduction
Love and romance, falling in love and falling in love with a lover is a public experience. Quoted. Love as a philosophical discussion has also been the subject of attention of philosophers. In Greek culture, Plato addressed the subject of love in his treatise "Party" and related it to the concepts of goodness (Taifeh, 2012: 8). Ahmad al-Ghazali has freely used the word love in accidents for two reasons. It was written for the purpose of public dissemination (Ghazali, 1980: 53). Therefore, in this article, when studying the subject of love, both terms of love and affection in Sufism have been considered. As a result, the "Book of Love" has been composed in the revival of the sciences, relying more on the teachings of the Sufis and their written heritage. In Al-Muhaba, Imam al-Ghazali's realism is evident in the way he expresses and prepares his argument, and by reading the book Ahya al-Uloom al-Din, it becomes clear that al-Ghazali was a Sufi theologian until the end of his life who was distorted even in paying mystical opinions. It did not follow rational standards. In contrast to accidents, it is a work of oral heritage and romantic and mystical experiences. This work is a narration of a necessary and impossible event that is told with the same mystery and ambiguity. Ahmad Ghazali intends to show that love is not a reality but a truth. And the only way to understand the truth is to experience it. (Al-Ghazali, 1359: 41).
 
2-Research method
Undoubtedly, the theme of love in mystical works has been a controversial topic. Sufis and mystics in their works had to deal with this issue and somehow clarify their task with this issue. Due to the extent of this issue and its connection with divine love, which is the view of most Sufis, comments about it are found in most Sufi books. Imam Mohammad Ghazali and his brother, who are prominent figures in the field of mysticism and Sufism, have considered this issue in their works. In this article, we have tried to answer the following questions to express the views of these two personalities on this issue to be paid. Therefore, the questions of the present study can be asked asfollows:
1- To what extent does the view of Khajeh Ahmad Ghazali and Imam Mohammad Ghazali about love rely on religious teachings?
2- What is the nature and function of love and affection for Khajeh Ahmad Ghazali and Imam Mohammad Ghazali?
3- What is the reason for choosing the term love by Khajeh Ahmad Ghazali and the term love by Imam Mohammad Ghazali in expressing their opinions?
Imam Mohammad Ghazali and Ahmad Ghazali have expressed different views on the concept of love in their works. Considering the method and approach of these two towards love and related themes and since each of them had adopted a different method in their mystical and religious thought, it will be important to study this issue as one of the important topics. It was able to reveal new dimensions and aspects from the perspective of these two characters. In his views, Imam Mohammad Ghazali focuses more on the context of Islam and theological findings.
This study examines the views of two of the greatest thinkers in the Islamic world on the controversial subject of love and affection in the relationship between man and God. Because the co-occurrence of love between two completely different beings, one in the position of a creature and the other in the Creator of the universe, seems impossible. Islamic thinkers have paid special attention to it. The result of this attention has been the emergence of various and sometimes reciprocal views between the two groups of theologians and Sufis, who were the two corresponding heads in the pursuit of love and affection. Regarding the concept of love from the perspective of Ahmad Ghazali and Imam Mohammad Ghazali, some research has been done, some of which are mentioned:
Malmeli examines this issue in an article entitled "Description of Love in the Tragedies of Love" by Ahmad Ghazali and concludes that "the issue of love in this work has a mystical and real nature and is far from material and sensual matters. The feeling of perfectionism, not the outward manifestations, is evident in al-Ghazali's work. The love that the author introduces leads to the :union: between the lover and the beloved, and the lover disappears in the existence of the beloved, and no difference can be felt between the two. Al-Ghazali has been completely aristocratic in introducing pure, pure, real and mystical love with the knowledge of the works of the past”(Malmeli, 2006: 94).
3-Discussion
 
In the study of the revival of sciences, it is said that Imam Mohammad Ghazali wrote this work with the intention of reviving the popular religious teachings of Muslims from those teachings. Therefore, the way of expressing the topics in this book has been adjusted and observed in accordance with its purpose. Since the revival of sciences has been written not for a specific audience but for the general Muslim community. While it contains the lofty and important meanings of Islamic knowledge, it is far from the task of the world. The way of expressing the subject in this work, even in mystical subjects such as love and other Sufi meanings, is by no means vague, complex and mysterious. He has developed the theory of love in a way that is understandable to his audience. Even when he discusses seeing in the Hereafter, which is a special Ash'arite belief, and finally speaks clearly, concisely and concisely. Al-Ghazali's words in this model are expressed in a specific geography and its boundaries are quite clear. As a speaker, he expresses his theory in a tone mixed with Saho and vigilance. A theory that promotes love between a servant and God. It is a love that is consciously arising from knowledge and awareness. It is not a love that is from drunkenness and insider. Another important feature of this work, which Imam Ghazali has applied in the best way, is to follow a logical system in expressing the contents and introducing the preliminaries of each discussion to achieve the desired results. In expressing the subject of love, he first determines the place of love among other mystical authorities and reminds the extent of the relationship of love with other authorities, then proves the legitimacy of love by citing the evidence of Sharia. Then he examines its meaning (Taifeh, Sima, 1391: 109). Al-Ghazali explicitly recounts his inner voice in his book Al-Munqiz Man Al-Dhalal. And that what he has done so far can not be the answer to his inner need and he steps on a path that is the beginning of his inner transformation (Al-Ghazali, 1388: 33-38). Al-Ghazali will show that by appealing to religious teachings, love does not end with the end of worldly life. According to Imam Mohammad Al-Ghazali, "love is the desire of nature towards something that is pleasing (soul) and pleasurable" when this desire intensifies, it is called love (passionate love), so love is considered an important component for Al-Ghazali / 313).
Events narrate an experience, and experience is a lived thing, not a thought. Thus, tragedy is narrated like a story. The story of the soul's encounter with love at a timeless time when the soul was created. The book begins with a narrative tone and if the reader of this narration can put himself in the place of the main character of the story, namely the soul, he will be able to proceed with the narration and the story will have meaning for him. But if the reader can not reach such a threshold, he will not understand the connection between the events and adventures in the story. Love is beyond the limits of time and space, and its infinity makes it incomprehensible and insane. "Yahbuna" does not mean that the Shafi'i Muslim believers love God. Rather, he speaks of love beyond the Muslim rank and even the material human being. He speaks of the mania of the soul as a high-ranking creature of God in eternity (Taifeh, 1391: 110).
 
4-Conclusion
By summarizing the views and opinions of Imam Mohammad Ghazali about love, we reach an important conclusion that AbraHamov has expressed in the best way: Ghazali's theory of love is religious because it is directed to God; It is rational because it is formulated within the framework of knowledge, and it is mystical because it considers closeness to God as a value. It seams. But it is Islamic because philosophical thoughts are intertwined with Islamic thoughts about this world and the hereafter. Explaining the concept of love in Ahmad Ghazali is not something that can be done easily. The vague text of the tragedies does not allow us to speak clearly about the concept and nature of love. Also, attributing love to the Absolute makes it impossible for us to become aware of its nature and meaning through limited definitions. However, from all the words and phrases of Khajeh, it can be concluded that Khajeh Ahmad considers love as a subject that the soul, and not the soul, faces. Ahmad Ghazali's love, unlike knowledge, which is enlightening, is intoxicating and causes misunderstanding, it has nothing to do with the low perceptual hand that we know on our level of consciousness. For Ahmad Ghazali, love is neither a means nor an end, but a destination. The destination that the soul wants to return to. In this romantic return, love is the transcendent of the soul, because the soul, after descending to the material world, has departed from its spiritual quality and brings love and the soul to its former status in an ascending course.
 
 
 

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کلیدواژه‌های انگلیسی مقاله عشق, محّمد غزالی, احیاءعلوم‏الدین, ‌‌احمد غزالی, سوانح‏العشاق

نویسندگان مقاله ازیتا راهنورد کهنه شهری |
دانشجوی دکتری گروه زبان و ادبیات فارسی واحد بناب، دانشگاه آزاد اسلامی، بناب، ایران

عزیز حجاجی کهجوق |
استادیار گروه زبان و ادبیات فارسی، دانشگاه آزاد اسلامی، بناب ، بناب، ایران (نویسنده مسئول )

آرش مشفقی |
استادیار گروه زبان وادبیات فارسی، دانشگاه آزاد اسلامی، واحد بناب ، بناب، ایران


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